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Category Archives: Internet

Ways Make Money With SEO Reseller Programs

SEO program simply means reselling the packages and services of search engine optimization firm. Today, it is becoming what many entrepreneurs are using to make profit online. SEO Reseller Programs India has made it possible for everyone to become a part of this reseller program.

As SEO reseller, we help people to earn good commissions like sales agents on every SEO package that is sold. It is a lucrative way of making money for yourself and for the SEO Company we are selling your packages to. The Seo Reseller Program is a good investment that helps the seller makes profit out of any plan that is sold. If you have a website, you make use of this program in earning extra money for yourself through the help of an SEO company. There are many reseller firms online that would help you in making the right details of the SEO service that can help you in boosting your business online. Before you get the services of an SEO service, you should research on the type of SEO services that would suit you. This is where we come in to help you with your SEO reseller programs.

Before you get a little excited, there is something you must know about Seo Reseller Programs India. Search engine ranking is very important for every website. With our support, it is easy for you to get a higher degree of visibility online through a rise in traffic. There are several tasks that SEO encompasses and each of these tasks is designed to increase the number of visitors coming to a site. Some of the procedures that we prove for SEO services include; link building, web directory submission and content writing.  These tasks are easy to perform individually, but they must be work together to produce result. There are firms that want to sell SEO package but they may not have the time to create a package. What these firms do is to become a reseller for SEO firms instead.

We have you become an SEO reseller. It will be our responsibility to provide your customized SEO package that would be tailored to the requirement of your client.The good news is that you must not necessarily know what search engines is all about before you can become an SEO reseller. All you need to do is to sell your plan. However, you should be able to understand what you are about to sell. It is imperative that you get the help of a professional SEO firm that can help you with your SEO reseller investment. There is no law that stops you from getting creative and rebranding your SEO services. You can even use your name as the name of your SEO reseller business.

At the end of the dayFree Reprint Articles, a lot of us may be wondering how to begin this lucrative SEO service business. You can make use of if you want to be a successful SEO reseller.

Ways to solve out Error key issue in Microsoft Antivirus

As we all know that using computer without antivirus is damn risky because there is a high risk of cyber infection all round in the internet. Once your computer will get virus affected it will show many technical trouble associated to that. But Microsoft has found solution for those infections by launching its antivirus program. This antivirus program is been working on many devices from decades and its work is really appreciable but technical troubles are too present in it.

Every internet security service has got technical troubles in it and so this one also. The technical hindrances coming in Microsoft antivirus can be associated with blocking of other programs from installation, facing error key issue while re-installing the antivirus, difficulty in installation of the antivirus and few more. The most common issue in this antivirus program is the error key issue. This technical hindrance occurs during the time of re-installing the program in your device. What is that key and why it is needed? Whenever you install any antivirus software you put a key to install the program that key is again needed when you try to re-install the program and without that key you won’t be able to re-install the antivirus. ThoughFree Reprint Articles, it is an issue to get panic but solution for it is also available and that you can receive by calling at Microsoft Support Number UK.

That key has got a great importance to install or reinstall an antivirus program and error in that will not allow you to do so. But as I said that solution for such issue is also available and to achieve that you need to contact tech experts. These tech experts will assist you with all the needed ways so that you can correct this issue easily. To get in touch with those tech experts you need to call at Microsoft help Number UK 0800-098-8352 and the tech experts are there to avail you with solution. The will guide you over the phone and by following their instructions you will easy reach the solution for the tech issue you are facing. You can call these tech experts any time you need assistance for the error key issue or some other issue and they will always be available to serve you with the solution. These tech experts are known for serving round the clock so that they can provide assistance to more and more people searching for resolution of any type of tech issue occurring in their Microsoft antivirus. No matter where you live or what is the time these technicians are always ready with their solution for all such tech issues. They provide service to each corner of UK and that has made them the best technical team in UK for all sort of Microsoft technical issues.

Tips for Buying Genuine Artwork Online

While the Internet has made our lives convenient to a great extent, it has also been touted as a place where no purchase can be guaranteed, and cheap imitations of real products are sold. Though the online shopping experience may not be that bad for some, when it comes to purchasing art online, there has to be a legitimate way of identifying the authenticity of the piece you are willingly going to shell out your earnings for. That exquisite sculpture, that surreal photograph, that striking painting―what goes into buying art online? Here are some tips collected from global experts.

Look for Authentic Websites
Experts recommend purchasing art from online extensions of real galleries to ensure their credibility. However, there are other websites that exist solely in the virtual realm, and have been set up so that you can avoid the cost of a middleman, and purchase directly from the seller or even the artist. To verify such websites, look for a physical address, a phone number, and an email address. Call them and discuss the piece you want to buy.
You will be able to gauge from the conversation how well they know their business, and this will increase your confidence in the website that you intend to purchase from. Though this is true of any online shopping experience, ensure that websites you buy artwork from are secure; while paying, the address bar should read https:// that proves that your credit card details will be safe with them.

Learn More About the Artist
You may have seen a piece of art you really like, but do you know the artist? Because of the volatile nature of the art market, it is difficult to predict whether that artwork is going to stand the test of time or retain a position of pride and importance only in your home. If you are purchasing art as an investor, and intend to resell it after the value of the piece appreciates, it is important that you learn as much as you can about the artist.
Alan Bamberger, art consultant and author of The Art of Buying Art, says, “Knowing how to assess an artist’s career information becomes increasingly important the more expensive or significant the art is that you’re thinking about buying.” He suggests learning about the lifetime of the artist, his education, the number of years he has been in the field, the publications that have mentioned him, the galleries/auctions/exhibitions/websites that have showcased his work, and of course, his references from other buyers and gallerists. In short, the popularity of the artist determines the value of the artwork you are going to buy.

Learn More About the Artwork
Is the piece of art a single piece, a part of a collection, or a limited edition? Is it an original or an ‘enhanced’ reproduction, or more importantly, a giclée (a fine art digital print)? Some of these may look original, but upon receiving them, you may realize that they are not. You may be told that you are being sold a signed print, which is not the same as the signature of the artist on the original work.
This is where the verification of the artist and the site becomes more important, to ensure that you are not being conned into spending a colossal amount for something worth much less.

Time Your Purchase
If you happen to find a piece of art that is up for sale as soon as it is launched, you are likely to buy it for less. Since the value of art appreciates over time, it is a good idea to find websites that highlight new releases, from where you can buy originals at their starting price. This also means that eventually, the value of your possession may appreciate, and if you intend to sell it, you may get a suitable return on your investment.

Be Well Aware of Your Requirement
Are you looking for a certain type of artwork? A certain color? A certain size? A certain medium? Ensure that you know exactly what you want so that when you go online, you are not lost for choice, and are in fact, able to easily narrow down your choices based on your preferences. Measure the area where you are going to put the artwork. It may be difficult to judge the scale of the painting online. Something small may look very huge and vice versa.
If possible, get a mock-up and put it up in that space so that you get used to the idea of the size of the artwork.

View the Artwork Closely
Purchasing online means giving up on the facility to see, touch, and experience the artwork in its real glory; of course, this is only one of the things you have to give up for the convenience this medium offers. Colors may vary from screen to screen; what appears salmon on screen may actually be peach in reality, and this can really throw you off balance when you receive the artwork.
So, view the picture of the piece of art in the highest resolution and the maximum screen brightness so that you can see the color and detail as closely to its original self as possible.

Demand a Certificate of Authenticity
All original artwork is accompanied by this document, and if it is not, you know you’re not getting the real deal. Not only does this validate the authenticity, it also is mandatory if you intend to sell the work in the future.

Verify the Shipping and Return Policy
Once you are sure that you’ve found a piece that your heart is set upon, read up on the shipping and delivery policy of the website. We’ve already established that artwork is an expensive investment, so it should be delivered to you in mint condition. Ensure that it is insured for damages during shipping by the seller.
Further, most websites have a return and refund policy, because what if the artwork doesn’t look as it did online, or what if it just isn’t working out in the space you had planned to put it up in? If a website does not have this policy, steer clear of it. There is a stipulated time within which the artwork may be returned (usually 7 days from the date of receipt), but this may be different for each website.

Explore, Explore, Explore!
It is easy to like something online and purchase it immediately. However, spend some time in research. Don’t rush in. Experts suggest using a minimum of one month to research and identify your taste in art. Once you are able to do so, it is only then that you should go ahead and make that purchase. One more thing that you should do is buy one small piece of artwork, and see how that works out.

Did you get what you were looking for? Does it look exactly as it did online? Did you have any trouble during shipping/payment? Does it suit the space you have bought it for? Does it suit your taste? If the answer to all or most of these questions is yes, you can safely switch to online shopping for artwork.

Remember, however, that nothing beats the real-world experience of interacting with art connoisseurs, and understanding the meaning behind each piece of artwork. So, while you do switch to online shopping, make it a point to, once in a while, step into a gallery and enjoy the real experience.

Broadband dan Dial-Up Connection

A dial-up Internet connection requires a telephone line and a modem to connect to the Internet. As the name suggests, the modem dials up a call in order to establish a connection with the Internet service provider (ISP). Broadband provides a wider range of frequencies for connection, with a higher speed as compared to the dial-up connection. It provides this high speed without interfering with the working of the telephone line.

Comparison Between Broadband and Dial-Up Connection

Dial-up connects to the Internet through a modem and a dedicated telephone line. The telephone line remains engaged when the Internet is accessed via a dial-up Internet connection. A broadband connection is done using various mediums like cable, DSL, and satellite Internet. It provides Internet access without keeping the phone lines busy.

A dial-up Internet connection uses an access number to connect to the Internet, but broadband connections, on the other hand, do not require any access number to be dialed. Moreover, voice and Internet services cannot be simultaneously used in a dial-up connection.

IP Address
When a dial-up connection is established between an Internet user and an Internet service provider, the modem dials the access number and every time a new IP address is assigned to your computer. In contrast, the IP address assigned to your computer is the same throughout when broadband is used. The IP address changes only if the cable or DSL modem is physically disconnected and a connection is again established with the Internet service provider. A dial-up connection on the other hand, keeps on connecting and disconnecting according to the needs of the user.

As the IP address keeps on changing in case of a dial-up connection, crackers cannot hack IP addresses easily. Crackers are black-hat hackers, i.e., people who use unethical techniques to hack a computer. However, in case of broadband, the IP address does not change so often, which can prove beneficial for crackers.

Use of Modem and Router
Traditional telecommunication systems used analog signals for communication, and dial-up connections, therefore, need a modem to convert these analog signals into digital signals. Broadband connections, on the other hand, do not require the analog to digital and digital to analog conversion.

Dial-up access does not require a special router, while broadband requires a router. A router is a device that provides a connection between the user and the Internet service provider.

Speed and Cost
Dial-up connections make it difficult to view or download videos, download e-mail attachments, play games, and perform other tasks that require high speeds, as the connection is very slow. Broadband provides a higher speed, and therefore, supports services like videos and bulk downloading. The speed of a dial-up connection is usually 56 kbps, but some modems can provide a speed of 320 kbps. The speed of broadband is generally around 2 Mbps.

The cost of dial-up is decided based on the calls per minute, similar to the telephone billing procedure. The cost of broadband is decided by the rent you pay to the Internet service provider.

As you can see, there are many differences between these two connections. Though dial-up connections were once the norm, these days it is best to opt for a broadband connection, as it provides many benefits over the older dial-up. Of course, there are some places, like remote places, where it is not possible to get broadband connections; in these cases dial-up may be the only alternative for now.

Ways update Internet Explorer on Windows 7

Internet Explorer is one of the most reliable and widely used web browser. Heavy web pages are loaded easily in the browser due to document object model. It support essential navigation and downloads are done in a safe environment. Internet Explorer has tracking protection list to protect the browser from browser tracking habits. It can be integrated with various OS and also the web page loads faster that other web browsers.

Here are some of the processes to update the browser

First Process

Explore the IE browser and click on the gear icon in the browser.

As the drop down appearsHealth Fitness Articles, select ‘About Internet Explorer’.

Next select the option ‘Install new version automatically’ and the IE browser will be updated automatically.

Second Process

In the Search box in Windows 7 type ‘Update’.

Next click on ‘Windows Update’ and select ‘Check for updates’.

All the available updates will be displayed in the message.

Choose the required update and click ‘OK’.

Now click on ‘Install Update’.

Third Process

Open the IE browser and then click on ‘Tools’ option.

Select ‘Windows Update’ and choose ‘Customs’.

Wait some time for the processing of the updates and select ‘Clear All’ under High-priority updates.

Now choose the IE related updates from the list of potential updates.

Finally click on ‘Review and install updates’.

Not able to update the IE browser or facing trouble in updating the browser in Windows 7? Contact Internet Explorer customer support for best support and assistance. Support team has highly trained technicians who deal with the problem expertly with proper diagnosis. Dial the helpline number and reach out to technical team for help.

Internet Banking

Internet banking or banking via the Internet, can be considered a remarkable development in the banking sector. The ability to carry out banking transactions through the Internet has empowered customers to execute their financial transactions within the comfort of their homes. The benefits or advantages of Internet banking are however, not limited to a particular group of people. It benefits both the bankers and the customers alike.

Advantages of Online Banking

The most important advantage of this banking service is that the customers are no longer required to wait in the long and wearisome lines to request a financial transaction or statement. It has made the entire procedure of opening of an account quite simple and easy by reducing paperwork. The same flexibility can be observed while closing an account as well. You can also apply for a bank loan without personally visiting any local branch of your bank.

Conventional banking has always been slow and time-consuming, and sometimes, you may need to wait several hours to process a simple transaction like clearing a check. But Internet or online banking has tremendously reduced the time required to process banking transactions, making them faster and more convenient.

For the bankers, this system is cost-effective, as it has considerably reduced the administrative costs and paperwork related to banking transactions. Moreover, the banks can cater to the needs of thousands of customers at the same time. All these factors have significantly increased the profit margins of commercial banks by lowering their operating costs. This has enabled them to offer acceptable interest rates on savings accounts and credit cards.

With Internet banking, you can access any information regarding your account and transactions at any time of the day. This means that you no longer have to depend on office hours to obtain information. Therefore, you can regularly monitor your account, and keep track of all financial transactions. This can help detect fraudulent transactions easily.

Fund transfer, both national and international, has become faster and convenient with online banking. Nowadays, you can transfer funds from one account to another within a few minutes. You can also carry out stock trading and other investments by availing this facility. All these features have made online banking ideal for people who make a number of financial transactions each day.

Besides availing banking facilities 24 hours a day, you can collect important information regarding banking policies, rates of interest offered on different types of bank accounts, and the formalities required for executing various transactions, with Internet banking. As a result, you can compare the services provided by different banks, and opt for the one that satisfies your individual needs and requirements.

The security of your bank account is the most important factor in online banking. So, while banking through the Internet, you have to be careful to ensure the security of your computer and personal information, like the password and the user name. Otherwise, you may become a victim of computer hacking, or unauthorized use of your account by computer hackers. Though banks have come up with several security measures, the customers should also be a bit careful to ensure the safety and security of their banking transactions.

Internet Security

The Internet came into existence with the view to bring the world closer. It is a very dynamic environment where there is no boundary of place and time for any user. Initially, Internet was conceptualized for a limited number of users and hence it was designed without taking any security aspect into consideration. The increased popularity of Internet made it an open ground for hackers, viruses, bugs; which compromised the basic motives for which the computers and Internet came into existence.

Birth of the Internet and Concerns
Though information sharing started taking place via computers in the ’60s called the ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Agency Network) and the e-mail system was conceived in 1969, when it was termed as the electronic post office, the term ‘Internet’ was first used in 1982. The world was made familiar with the term ‘computer virus’ for the first time in 1983 by Fred Cohen. Robert Schifreen and Steve Gold were arrested for compromising with Prince Philip’s Prestel mailbox. The first PC virus called ‘Brain’ was created in Pakistan in 1985. By 1987, with the growing number of Internet hosts and the personal computer industry; number of people got access to Internet, which was a unique experience. With such a wide and open platform to use, the Internet was no longer safe. Privacy and security concerns started mushrooming and the terms ‘hacker’, ‘cracker’ and ‘electronic break-in’ were coined, when Robert Morris launched the Internet worm that spread across 1/10th (6000) of the Internet hosts. He was then sentenced to three years probation, 400 hours of community service and $10,000 fine.

CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team)
As the safety concerns over the Internet started increasing, CERT was formed in 1988, which was to be the focal point of the computer security concerns of the Internet users. This team actively spread computer security awareness among users and started conducting research that was targeted to improve the security of existing systems.

By 1992, the number of Internet users swelled by 341% since the restriction on the commercial use of Internet was lifted by the National Science Foundation in 1990 and Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist in Switzerland first wrote the code of the World Wide Web in 1991, many companies, organizations and individuals hosted their websites. However, hackers started working widely around 1995 and altered the websites of the U.S. Justice Department, the CIA and the U.S. Air Force. This was followed by number of virus attacks and worms that affected computers and operating systems since the late ’90s. Even today, Internet systems cannot be deemed foolproof, and always need a security back-up to save the computer systems. As such threats were unfolding and making headlines in the press, they needed to be tackled and also raised alarms to develop security systems, this is when Firewall started its evolution.

November 2, 1988 changed the Internet user experience forever. Peter Yee at the NASA Ames Research Center reported an incident in the TCP/IP Internet mailing list that Berkeley, UC San Diego, Lawrence Livermore, Stanford, and NASA Ames were attacked by Internet virus. This is when, those who built and contributed to the Internet and its users felt unsafe of their web presence. Other viruses followed suit and started attacking systems. This prompted the making of a Firewall. This term literally means that it is a wall or barrier between the house and the garage or between apartments that will control the time of a raging fire from entering another premise, or a precautionary distance between an automobile engine and its driver. This concept was executed in the virtual world in the form of the first network firewalls in late 1980s, which were routers that were used to separate networks into smaller LANs. This avoided various networks from being affected at the same time. However, the first security routers were used in the early 1990s which worked on the filtering rules that could detect harmful pages or sites and could block them from the system. These were effective but limited. Thereon, Firewalls also emerged with technology and security needs. Firewalls are the checkpoints that impose restrictions on the incoming and outgoing packets in public and private networks based on IP source ad TCP port number. Packet Filters, Circuit-level gateways, Application-level gateways are some of the types of firewalls.

Most viruses in the ’80s were relatively less harmful to the systems, as they were limited to self-reproduction and had no specific damage routine written in the code. However, this scene changed when more programmers became aware of virus programming and started building viruses that manipulated and destroyed data on infected computers. This aroused the need for something like an anti-virus, which would render safety to the systems and networks. Though it is a topic of debate over who was the first to invent the anti-virus code or software, early records from the 1980s credit Bernd Fix of having first publicly performed the removal of computer viruses in 1987, also there were two anti-virus applications that were developed for the Atari ST platform in the same year. Many inventors had picked the academic papers to develop strategies for anti-virus by Fred Cohen I 1988. Desperate need to get a breakthrough with anti-viruses, a mailing list called the VIRUS-L was started in 1988 on the BITNET/EARN network where new viruses and possibilities to eliminate them were discussed. These discussions led to two of its members – John McAfee and Eugene Kaspersky to form software companies that even today develop and sell anti-virus software.

Installing an anti-virus software on individual computers, using tools like firewalls, cloud anti-virus, on-line scanners, etc are being increasingly used for security purposes. These tools come with their own share of benefits and disadvantages like an expensive renewal, for example. Every facility comes with its own drawbacks. Like the innovation in computer technology gave rise to the Internet facility, it was bugged with security concerns. When the tools for protection from these threats evolved, they too have certain limitations or are still progressing. Yet, we cannot do away with both these facilities.

Positive Effects Internet

Internet, as we know, is a large network of networks, which communicate with each other by means of data packets. By definition, it is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the TCP/IP protocol to communicate. The Internet is regarded as the largest information base. And today, it has become an integral part of our lives. Its access methods have also evolved over time, starting from dial-up connections, slowly graduating to broadband, developing further into wireless access, and then to cellular technology. With the increasing and improving means of accessing the web, its use and popularity also grew. Owing to its easy availability, high access speeds, and the variety of services offered, Internet is the need of the day.

We depend on it in more ways than one. We access news websites to update ourselves about the current affairs, we rely on the communication platform it offers to communicate with the world. Be it using a social networking website to post what’s happening in our lives, or using an application like Skype or Viber to talk to our dear ones; web is the medium. Be it to access information or to entertain ourselves, Internet is our first choice. We use it to order food and we use it to shop
for clothes; we use it to read books and to play games. Right from money to medical help, everything is just a click away, thanks to the Internet. It has surely affected the society positively.

Positive Effects

The Internet can be looked at as the means to Access, Express, Impress, and do much more. It is a storehouse of information and perhaps the biggest knowledge base that is easily accessible to just anyone in the world. It gives everyone accessing it, a platform to share their views with the world. Right from personal information to huge employee databases, it can house any and everything. There is no restriction on the type of data that can be stored and accessed via the Internet; which is to say, the files can be of any type (text, audio, image, video, etc.) And the web is a big eCommerce hub; you can shop for just anything online.

The Internet is widely used to store and access information. Email accounts have such great storage capacities that they can store much more than just written communication. Then you have tools like Google Drive, which let you store gigabytes of information online. Cloud computing allows huge storage of data that can be accessed remotely. It relies of sharing resources, thus ensuring their optimum use.

Owing to the increasing volumes of useful information that the web hosts, it can be considered as a knowledge base. From craft ideas for kids, to spiritual guidance, there are several websites ready to help you for free. There are those which give DIY procedures, health tips, and investment advice, thus proving to be of help in daily living. You have a question? Search engines are here to answer. Type in a simple search query in one of them, and they will fetch you thousands of relevant results in microseconds. This increases the speed of information access, and makes it easy for anyone to find answers.

The Internet provides some of the most effective means of communication. Emails and instant messages have made online communication possible. Social networking and blogging websites, and discussion forums have proved to be the best platforms for expression. People in different parts of the world can collaborate over the Internet. They can exchange views, share information, and work together over the web. Professionals working at distant locations can collaborate their efforts, thanks to the Internet. It has brought the world closer, and made far-off places more reachable.

The web serves as the biggest source of entertainment these days. Songs, movies, and even episodes of TV series can be downloaded. Or they can be streamed and enjoyed online. Also, there are several online games that are a recreational means for many. Plus, there is entertaining content; gossip, controversies, stories, riddles, jokes, and more to browse through and be entertained. Some websites host fun activities like grooming a pet, painting pictures, solving puzzles, and so much more. There are portals offering you personality tests and quizzing you to let you know which cartoon character or celebrity you resemble. Fun!

The Internet has redefined business. Huge money transactions can be carried out online; that includes payment of bills, sale and purchase of commodities, and bank transactions. As consumers are turning to the Internet to buy goods, businesses are promoting themselves using the same medium. Fields like online marketing and internet advertising have boomed because of the growing use of the Internet. Products and services can be advertised more effectively over the web. Through tools like RSS feeds, newsletters, and online advertisements, the Internet has made it easier for the business to reach potential customers and also promote their brand.

When we talk of the positive effects of the Internet on different aspects of society, the education, health, and finance sectors are the first few things that come to mind. It was the development of the Internet that made online education and distance learning possible. Computer-aided education made learning fun. It brought interactivity in teaching methods and also helped teachers provide better education to the students. Thanks to the Internet, medical professionals can be reached faster, seeking opinions has become easier as medical reports and/or patient records can be sent over long distances in seconds. Similarly, financial advice is just a few clicks away, thanks to online services provided by professionals in the field. The most valuable gift that the Internet has given society is increased awareness. Due to the many web sources providing informational or educational content, a general awareness among people has increased.

Today, the Internet is a part of every sphere of life. It does have disadvantages, but its positive effects on society outweigh the negative ones, if it is used wisely. If exposed to the world wide web at the right age, children can benefit from it in several ways. If you know what to use it for, Internet is a good thing.

History Email

Electronic mail, known commonly by its abbreviation ’email’, is probably the most used medium of communication today. 50 years ago, had someone said that it would be possible to instantly deliver documents to a recipient sitting half way across the globe, he would have been a laughingstock. However, email came, saw, and conquered the world wide web. Today, it offers so much more than just written text communication. Its ability to securely forward multimedia, photos, software, etc., has made it a popular choice. It’s rightly said that ‘necessity is the mother of all inventions’, and we humans have always found a way whenever the need arose. The history of email communication is very interesting and intriguing. Let’s go back to the days when the Cold War was at its peak.

An Overview of the History of Email

Following the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, the Pentagon initiated a program to design a network whose main aim was to withstand a nuclear attack. Though, the Pentagon insisted that this was not a military program and gave it a scientific angle. This network came to be known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network or ARPANET, after the program’s completion by 1969. Evolution of email is said to have started much earlier than ARPANET, though.

In 1965, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was the first to demonstrate the use of an email system, known as MAILBOX. This was before the Internet came into existence and therefore, this system was used to send messages to different users on the same computer.

In 1971, Ray Tomlinson, a former MIT student, was working on the TENEX operating system for BBN technologies, as an ARPANET contractor. While using a local email program called SNDMSG, Tomlinson created the first email application when he patched a program called CPYNET to the existing SNDMSG. This introduced the capability to copy files through a network and Ray notified his colleagues by sending them the first email. It’s said that the first message sent by Ray was ‘QWERTYUIOP’, which is formed by the entire first row characters of a standard keyboard.

The history of email addresses can also be attributed to Tomlinson. He chose the ‘@’ symbol to provide an addressing standard in the form of “user@host”, which is in use till date. This is why Tomlinson is called the ‘father of email’ and is credited with its invention.

By 1974, email in its improved form was being used by the US military and became the savior of ARPANET, who’s importance was continuously declining. From here on, things developed at a brisk pace. By 1975, efforts to organize the email bore fruit. A general operating area, known as email account, for a user who wants to avail this service, was created. Access controlling was done by giving the user a secret password, which only he/she would know. Separate folders were created depending on the purpose. Inbox for incoming messages, outbox for outgoing messages, etc.

Year 1976 was a watershed year in the history of email marketing. Services were being offered in commercial packages and per-minute charges were applicable to those using these services. This led to the requirement for offline reading, which meant that users could now download their emails on to their personal computers, and then read them leisurely without using and paying for the airtime. This led to the development of applications, which were similar to what Microsoft Outlook can do today.

Requirement for protocols was felt almost immediately, and in 1972, file transfer protocol (FTP) was put in use to send email messages. The main drawback here was that FTP created a separate mail for every recipient and then dispatched it, which resulted in loss of precious memory space. This prompted the creation of the more efficient SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) in the early 1980s, which became a standard protocol to be used in sending email messages. However, the initial versions of SMTP failed to control the cases of forgery and it proved to be a naive protocol in the verification of the authenticity of a user. Viruses, worms, and spammers began exploiting these loopholes in SMTP and even though, many new and improved versions have been released, this problem continues till date.

If SMTP is used to send messages, POP (post office protocol) was a standard for receiving emails. This protocol is used by clients to retrieve messages from the mail server using a connection. Currently, the third version, namely POP3 is in use. One drawback of POP is that it does not support offline retrieval of messages. This demerit has now been overcome, by the more capable IMAP (Internet message access protocol).

History of Spam

Talking of emails, we cannot do without mentioning spam or bulk mail or commercial mail. With more than 85% of emails sent around the world being spam, it’s very important to know the background of spam. Most of us think that spam is quite a recent phenomenon, but you will be surprised to know that the earliest documented spam was sent way back on May 3rd, 1978, by a DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) employee using the SNDMSG application. He sent a marketing proposal to almost 400 ARPANET users, but the message was received by only 320 addresses, as that was the addressee limit of the application. Today, email spam is at its worst, with about 100 million spam mails being sent a day.

There’s so much more about the origin and timeline of email, but these were the most important landmark events. Looking at its current usage, we can only add that instant messaging via email is here to stay.

What is a URL ?

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It specifies the global address of web documents and web resources. The basic reason behind locating or identifying a resource on the web is access or communication. Interaction between web users and the Internet resources is possible, only if each resource on the Internet is identified in a standardized manner. A URL serves this purpose. Let’s look at the different parts that compose it and what purpose each of them serves.

The first part of the address is the protocol identifier. HTTP and FTP are examples of protocol identifiers, which indicate the protocol in use. More rightly known as the scheme, this part of the URL denotes how to connect to the web resource. It is not case-sensitive but the canonical form is lowercase.

The second part of a URL is the resource name that comprises the IP address or the domain name of the web resource. It denotes where to connect. The domain name may be followed by a port number which is separated by a colon. When specified, a connection to that port number is established. If the port is not specified, the browser connects to the default http port which is 80.

The domain name may be followed by a path when a particular resource such as a file or a page needs to be retrieved. This part of the URL specifies what to retrieve. It is case-sensitive. On servers based on Microsoft, it is not. A URL may consist of a fragment identifier which denotes a specific location on the page. If it is a part of the URL, the browser displays that specified part of the page.

A uniform resource locator is synonymous with uniform resource identifier that is abbreviated as URI. By definition, URI is a string of characters that is used to identify resources on the Internet. Either it is the uniform resource locator or a uniform resource name (URN).

Typically, HTTP is the first part of a URL. As you know, it is the protocol identifier. It is followed by a colon and two forward slashes after which comes the domain name of the resource to be located. URLs are commonly referred to as website addresses. To reach any particular website, you need to type its URL in the address bar of your browser, which then retrieves the desired page for you.

An internationalized resource identifier (IRI) is a type of URL that includes Unicode characters. It allows one to create URLs using one’s local alphabet. The domain name is known as an internationalized domain name (IDN). It is converted into punycode, wherein Unicode characters are represented as ASCII characters that DNS supports. When a user specifies a URL in the local alphabet, it is converted to Unicode, and characters that are not a part of the URL character set are converted to English letters using percent-encoding.

Tim Berners-Lee and the URI working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standardized the Uniform Resource Locator in 1994. The Domain Name System created in 1985 was combined with the file path syntax.

This was a brief explanation of the meaning of URL. You should go through these basic Internet terms, if you wish to introduce yourself to other web-related concepts.